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Chan's Sourcebook in Chinese Phil: "To the Confucianists, Heaven does not directly exert its will but leaves the moral law to operate by itself. To Mo Tzu however, the will of heaven determines all" (211).


"Now what does Heaven want and what does Heaven dislike? Heaven wants righteousness and dislikes unrighteousness" (Chan 218).

"Self Cultivation"

[3] The way of the superior man makes the individual incorruptible in poverty and righteous when wealthy; it makes him love the living and mourn the dead. These four qualities of conduct cannot be hypocritically embodied in one's personality. There is nothing in his mind that goes beyond love; there is nothing in his behaviour that goes beyond respectfulness, and there is nothing from his mouth that goes beyond gentility.

[4] Any virtue that does not spring from the heart will not remain and any (result of) action that is not aimed at by one's self will not stay.

"On the Necessity of Standards"

[3] What then should be taken as the standard in government? Nothing better than following Heaven. Heaven is all-inclusive and impartial in its activities, abundant and unceasing in its blessings, and lasting and untiring in its guidance.