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Background[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baruch_Spinoza

http://www.yesselman.com/

Works[edit]

Ethics

http://www.mtsu.edu/~rbombard/RB/Spinoza/ethica-front.html

Commentators[edit]

Hume:

The fundamental principle of the (alleged) atheism of Spinoza is the doctrine of the simplicity of the universe, and the unity of that substance, in which he supposes both thought and matter to inhere. There is only one substance, says he, in the world; and that substance is perfectly simple and indivisible, and exists every where, without any local presence. Whatever we discover externally by sensation; whatever we feel internally by reflection; all these are nothing but modifications of that one, simple, and necessarily existent being, and are not possest of any separate or distinct existence. Every passion of the soul; every configuration of matter, however different and various, inhere in the same substance, and preserve in themselves their characters of distinction, without communicating them to that subject, in which they inhere. The same substratum, if I may so speak, supports the most different modifications, without any difference in itself; and varies them, without any variation. Neither time, nor place, nor all the diversity of nature are able to produce any composition or change in its perfect simplicity and identity. (A Treatise of Human Nature, Bk I, Pt IV, Sec. V, "Of the Immortality of the Soul")